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|Development Of a Graphic Organiser That would Support Learning|
For a minimum of five reading comprehension teaching strategies, develop a graphic organizer for each strategy that would support student learning. 2) Each graphic organizer will support the comprehension strategy being used. Design the graphic organizers around a specific story and strategy. Include a summary of one to two paragraphs for each graphic organizer, explaining how you would use this in a comprehension lesson. 3) Include your rationale: specify the potential benefits of using each graphic organizer and how it will support assessment of knowledge. Use the GCU e-Library to locate peer-reviewed articles in support of your content. 4) While APA format is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected and in-text citations and references should be presented using APA documentation guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. 5) This assignment uses a grading rubric that can be viewed at the assignment's drop box. 6) Submit the assignment to the instructor by the end of Module 6. Reading Comprehension LECTURE Six READINGS Read chapter 6 in Literacy Development in the Early Years: Helping Children Read and Write. Read "The Road Not Yet Taken: A Transactional Strategies Approach to Comprehension Instruction" by Brown from The Reading Teacher (2008), located in the GCU e-Library at http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=31748472&site=ehost-live&scope=site Read "The Comprehension Matrix: A Tool for Designing Comprehension Instruction" by Gill from The Reading Teacher (2008), located in the GCU e-Library at http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=34739478&site=ehost-live&scope=site Read "Comprehension Clinchers" by Marcell from Teaching Pre K-8 (2006), located in the GCU e-Library at http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=20534648&site=ehost-live&scope=site Read "Making the Very Most of Classroom Read-Alouds to Promote Comprehension and Vocabulary" by Santoro, et al., from The Reading Teacher (2008), located in the GCU e-Library at http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=29407413&site=ehost-live&scope=site Explore the edHelper.com Web site at www.edHelper.com as a resource for the assignment in Module 6. Explore the Readinga-z.com Web site at www.readinga-z.com as a resource for the assignment in Module 6. Access the Bloom's Taxonomy Wheel enhancement in Canyon Connect as a resource for the Practicum assignment. INTRODUCTION The end goal of reading is the ability to comprehend what is read. Major components in reading comprehension are background knowledge, language knowledge, text structure, decoding, and vocabulary. In addition, readers use metacognitive strategies (thinking about thinking) to fine-tune their comprehension. Good readers have formed good reading habits that allow them to apply appropriate, proven reading strategies that promote good comprehension. Reading Comprehension Research The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's (2000) National Reading Panel suggests that reading comprehension includes modeling and supportive guidance so that students can acquire the tools needed to comprehend text. The National Reading Panel's subgroup analyzed over two hundred studies and recommended the following: Reading comprehension includes the development of an awareness and understanding of the reader's own cognitive processes that are related to instruction and learning. Teachers should guide the reader through the strategies the reader needs to enhance comprehension performance. Through modeling and thinking aloud, teachers can foster these metacognitive skills. Readers should practice the strategies with the teacher supporting the reader until the reader internalizes the strategies and masters them independently. Dowhower (1999) worked with a group of second graders to develop a strategic comprehension framework within the reading classroom. The framework focused on the three phases of reading (pre-reading, active reading, and post reading) and included what, why, how, and when comprehension questions as well as teacher-student discussion techniques. Strategies for the three phases included: The pre-reading phase focused on eliciting prior knowledge, building background and relating it to prior knowledge, and specific focus on procedural knowledge strategies. The active or during reading phase focused on repetition of establishing a purpose for reading, silent reading, self-monitoring, and working the story through discussion. The post reading phase entails independent activities for students as individuals or groups through recall of content, reader response, extensions of test, strategy use and transfer, and informal or self-assessment. Reading Comprehension Strategies Palinscar and Brown (1999) suggest that reciprocal teaching in which the teacher and students take turns leading discussions on shared literature is an effective application of four comprehension strategies: prediction, clarification, summarization, and question generation. Some less complex reading comprehension strategies that are also research-based include: Graphic organizers such as KWL charts allow the students to present what they know (prior knowledge and building background), what they want to learn (establishing purpose), and what they have learned (informal self-assessment). Other graphic organizers, including maps, webs, grids, and other visual organizational tools help students to recognize important ideas. Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DR-TA) is a comprehension technique that encourages prediction and validation. The DR-TA cycle asks the reader to first predict what will happen using context clues and then validating those predictions with a section of the text. Directed Listening-Thinking Activity (DL-TA) provides a scaffold for making predictions as students read. Literature and Reading Comprehension The use of quality literature, especially with young learners, is an important element of a reading program. Effective techniques to employ literature include: Pattern books with repeated phrases, refrains, and sometimes rhymes. Big books for group shared reading. Readers' theater in which students act out books they have read. Story mapping that allows students to develop schema. Literature circles to discuss good literature. Literature response journals so students can collect informal information on their reading. Adapting stories into play and scripts for film and tape. CONCLUSION Reading comprehension is the ultimate goal of learning to read so that the learner can internalize the knowledge gained and use it to connect to other information. Good teachers use specific reading comprehension strategies to teach students; they model and teach purpose and application so students can apply these strategies. In addition, scaffolding is provided for students until they can independently use comprehension strategies. REFERENCES Dowhower, S. L. (1999). Supporting a strategic stance in the classroom: A comprehension framework for helping teachers help students to be strategic. The Reading Teacher, 52(7), 672-688. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction: Reports of the subgroups (NIH Publication No. 00-4754). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Palinscar, A. S., & Brown, A. (1999). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension-fostering and comprehension monitoring activities. Cognition and Instruction, 1(2), 117-175.
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